International tourism in Russia: problems and prospects
Modern international tourism is one of the most developing sectors of the world economy. This is the industry that occupies one of the leading positions in international foreign economic relations, after the oil and engineering industries. It happens to be exit and entry. Outbound tourism is the journey of people permanently residing in the Russian Federation to another country. Inbound tourism is travel within the Russian Federation of persons who do not reside permanently in the Russian Federation. This type of tourism develops under the influence of many factors that can be reduced into three groups: demographic, economic, social. International tourism began to develop intensively at the end of the 20th century, which had a great impact on the economy of individual countries of the world. After reading books and articles on tourism, it can be concluded that tourism is currently a strong global industry, which occupies a small part of the global gross product
where the basic means of production and the large masses of employees are used.
The purpose of this study is to determine the development trend of international tourism in general, based on the analysis of statistical indicators and forecasts.
Since the beginning of 2000, there has been an increase in tourism income in world trade in services. The most visited region of the world was Europe, which is also the main supplier of tourists to other regions of the world. The share of income from foreign tourism in the total revenue from the export of goods and services in Spain is 36%, Greece – 37%, Cyprus – 51%. The most visited European countries were: France, Italy, Spain, where tourists leave a significant amount of money for their holidays. In Spain, tourism provides 12% of GDP, which is the most profitable sector of the economy. Tourists visit Italy to see the sights from the list of World Heritage sites, of which there are 44 objects in the country. If you compare the ratings of countries around the world in terms of tourist attendance for 2013, you can see that Europe is still the most favorite place for tourists. According to the forecast for 2020, twice as many tourists will visit Europe. It is also possible to predict route movements of other countries of the world. By 2020, the top ten countries in terms of attendance will be:
China (without Hong Kong),
Hong Kong (China),
Turkey also has the prerequisites for more active entry into the global tourism market. It is diverse in its natural resources, historical and cultural heritage. Therefore, Turkey is the main rival for European countries in the field of tourism services and outdoor activities.
At the moment, international tourism has an impact on both political and economic relations in the world community. Tourism contributes to a change in the national economy. It is also relevant for the development of international tourism in Russia.
For 2006-2007, Russia had great potential in the field of tourism, but global tourist arrivals accounted for only 1%. At that time, our country was a donor to the global tourism market; it could not attract tourists in the same way as Europe, for example, did. Therefore, all Russians brought income not to their country, but to other countries of the world. According to the head of the Federal Agency for Tourism for 2006, Russian tourists annually export more money abroad of their country, while foreign tourists import much less into Russia. There was a decrease in the demand of foreign citizens for holidays in Russia. In 2005, almost 17% less foreign citizens came to Russia for tourism than in 2004.
Each year, Russia gained potential, developed in the field of tourism, attracted by developed tourism support programs. Such programs were “South of Russia”, “Far East and Transbaikalia” and many others. The fast pace of tourism development has begun. Agrotourism began to develop successfully in the country. The purpose of this type of tourism is to provide voluntary assistance in managing farms and other farms. In Russia, it is more or less developing in Siberian villages, for example, in the Altai region, Ivanovo, Belgorod, Kaluga region, and the Republic of Buryatia, but they are also going to begin to actively develop it in the Krasnodar Territory. This type of tourism is popular abroad, especially among Americans.
In 2013, St. Petersburg, Moscow and the cities of the Golden Ring became the most attractive tourism regions for foreigners. Also, foreign tourists are happy to visit Lake Baikal and Kamchatka. It is also noted that the interest of foreign tourists, primarily tourists from the former countries of the Warsaw Pact and Scandinavia, to the Krasnodar Territory and, in the near future, will be restored.